Cookies play a critical role in today‘s web. These tiny data files provide convenience but also raise privacy concerns. In this comprehensive guide, we‘ll explore everything about HTTP cookies – from technical details to proper handling for web scraping.
What Exactly Are Cookies?
You‘re browsing an online clothing store. You add a pair of shoes to your cart but don‘t check out yet. When you return to the site later, those shoes still appear in your cart. How does the website remember this? Cookies.
HTTP cookies are small text files that websites store on your computer. They contain data that identifies your specific browser or device. According to Mozilla , cookies were invented in 1994 by Lou Montulli while at Netscape.
When you visit a website, it sends cookie data via HTTP headers. Your browser automatically saves this cookie locally. On future requests to the same site, the browser attaches the cookie again. This allows the site to "remember" details about you or your session.
Let‘s look at a sample HTTP header for sending a cookie:
Set-Cookie: cart=shoes,socks; expires=Wed, 21 Oct 2022 07:28:00 GMT
Here the cookie named "cart" has the value "shoes,socks" and expires next Wednesday. Pretty simple right? But cookies enable some powerful functionality.
Why Do We Need HTTP Cookies?
Cookies primarily handle four key tasks:
Session management: Cookies allow identifying user sessions across multiple pages. For example, an ecommerce site can use a cookie to remember items you‘ve added to your shopping cart. This persists even if you navigate to other parts of the site before checking out.
Personalization: Websites can leverage cookies to customize content based on your location, browsing history, or preferences. For example, a news site may highlight stories about your home town.
Tracking: Third-party advertising networks heavily rely on cookies to track your behavior across sites for targeted ads. Marketers can link your activities into a user profile tied to a browser cookie ID.
Authentication: Cookies can store login credentials, tokens, or other info to authenticate users. This saves you from having to re-login on every new page.
Additionally, cookies help with:
- Security – Storing encrypted identity tokens to validate users
- State management – Maintaining state for HTTP‘s stateless request/response cycle
- User experience – Saving preferences like default language to optimize page loading
In summary, cookies provide convenience but also enable extensive tracking. We‘ll explore the privacy implications later on.
The Technical Side of Cookies
Now that we know why cookies matter, let‘s go deeper into how they technically function. I‘ll use examples from Chrome to illustrate the key concepts.
As seen above, the Set-Cookie header sends cookies from a server to your browser. Here‘s another example :
Set-Cookie: id=a3fWa; Expires=Wed, 21 Oct 2021 07:28:00 GMT; Secure; HttpOnly
The main fields here are:
- Name – id
- Value – a3fWa (unique identifier)
- Expires – Cookie expiration date
- Secure – Send only over HTTPS
Your browser automatically saves any cookies sent in headers. What happens when you request the same site again? The browser attaches those cookies to the request using the Cookie header:
This header contains all the relevant cookies your browser has saved for that domain. The server can then read this to identify your session or preferences.
Your browser squirrels away cookies in specialized storage. In Chrome, you can view all your current cookies at chrome://settings/cookies. Here‘s a snippet :
Details like name, content, domain, size, expiration are visible here. You can also delete any unwanted cookies.
Behind the scenes, Chrome actually stores cookies in individual text files under a Cookies folder :
Similar cookie storage behavior exists across all major browsers like Firefox, Safari, Edge, etc.
So far we‘ve seen basic cookie properties like name, value and expiration time. But cookies have several additional optional attributes :
- Domain – Domain the cookie is valid for. Defaults to host domain.
- Path – URL path the cookie is valid for
- Secure – Only send over HTTPS
- SameSite – Strict cross-site transfer policy
These attributes allow carefully controlling cookie scope and security. For example, the Secure and HttpOnly flags help mitigate attacks like XSS.
Based on their functionality, cookies can be classified into a few types :
- Session cookies – Deleted after browser is closed
- Persistent cookies – Saved even after closing browser
- First-party cookies – From visited website domain
- Third-party cookies – From other domains like ads
- Secure cookies – Only transmitted over HTTPS
- Zombie cookies – Recreated after deletion
As we‘ll see next, some cookies are more problematic privacy-wise than others.
Cookie Law and Privacy Concerns
The convenience of cookies comes with a cost – websites can track your activity across sessions. While first-party cookies aren‘t so problematic, third-party tracking cookies stirred up major privacy issues.
Advertisers leverage cookies to follow your web browsing behavior across countless sites. Sophisticated user profiles are built up by combining datasets. All without your knowledge or consent.
This finally sparked stronger privacy legislation. The EU‘s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) now requires clearly informing users and obtaining opt-in consent for any non-essential cookies . Laws like the CCPA in California provide similar cookie protections.
Browsers themselves now enable more control over cookie tracking:
- Safari Intelligent Tracking Prevention blocks third-party cross-site tracking cookies.
- Firefox Enhanced Tracking Protection blocks known tracker cookies.
- Chrome allows deleting cookies for specific sites via the Clear on Exit option.
Cookie consent notices are now a familiar sight. As a user, it‘s important to carefully manage your cookie permissions. But tracking will likely persist as advertisers find creative workarounds.
Cookies and Web Scraping
Did you know that HTTP cookies have a significant role in web scraping? Properly handling cookies enables "human-like" sessions that avoid blocks.
Web scrapers gather data by programmatically crawling sites. But many sites don‘t permit scraping and actively block suspected bots.
One giveaway is failing to manage cookies properly across requests. Say you want to scrape product pages on an ecommerce site. You must first visit the site to collect cookies. Any product page requests should include those cookies to appear tied to a continuous browsing session.
Most scraping tools handle cookies automatically under the hood. For example, in Python‘s Requests module:
# First request to collect cookies response = requests.get(‘https://www.ecommerce.com‘) cookies = response.cookies # Subsequent requests attach cookies response = requests.get(‘https://www.ecommerce.com/products/id1234‘, cookies=cookies)
Headless browsers like Puppeteer are even smarter about automating cookie activities. Overall, intelligent cookie handling is vital when scraping sites actively trying to block bots.
Looking Beyond Cookies
Cookies are just one way to preserve state on the stateless web. Some alternatives like LocalStorage offer more storage and functionality – but aren‘t immune to privacy concerns.
LocalStorage allows websites to store megabytes of data in the browser, far more than cookies. Data persists beyond sessions and isn‘t transmitted to the server on each request.
As cookies get phased out by browsers enhancing privacy, sites will continue innovating around state management. Hopefully with security and privacy as top priorities this time.
We‘ve covered a lot of ground around the role of HTTP cookies on the modern web. While very useful for pragmatic tasks like session handling and personalization, they also introduce privacy risks.
As a user, make sure to monitor your cookie settings and clean up any unwanted tracking. As a developer, handle cookies judiciously and explore safer alternatives like encrypted flavored cookies.
Understanding how cookies technically function paves the way for using them appropriately – whether building applications or executing web scraping. Handle cookies wisely and they‘ll serve you well. Abuse them and you‘ll quickly face blocks and breakage.