Parsing and processing HTML and XML documents is a critical skill for Python developers working with web data. Whether you need to scrape content from websites, parse XML feeds, convert between formats, or analyze markup, having a solid HTML/XML parsing toolkit can save massive amounts of time and effort.
In this comprehensive, practical guide, you‘ll gain an in-depth understanding of using the powerful lxml library to parse, extract data from, and manipulate HTML and XML documents in Python.
- Installing and importing lxml
- Parsing HTML and XML from strings or files
- Traversing trees and efficiently accessing elements
- Programmatically building, modifying, and writing XML/HTML
- Handling real-world parsing tasks like screen scraping data
- Getting the most out of lxml for your specific use cases
You‘ll gain hands-on experience working with real examples, and advanced techniques to master lxml and become productive leveraging it in your Python code.
So let‘s dive in!
What is Lxml and Why Use It for Parsing?
Lxml is a mature, battle-tested library for ultra-fast parsing and manipulation of XML and HTML in Python. It has been around for well over a decade and is considered the gold standard for working with markup in Python.
But what makes lxml so powerful for parsing compared to other options?
Blazing Fast Parsing and Low Memory Usage
Lxml gets its speed by leveraging the extremely optimized C libraries libxml2 and libxslt under the hood. These libraries provide XML and XSLT functionality with performance on par with languages like C and Java.
In fact, benchmarks typically show lxml parsing massive XML/HTML files orders of magnitude faster than native Python implementations like xml.etree.
For example, one benchmark test parsing a 230 MB XML file found:
- lxml took 5 seconds
- xml.etree took 3 minutes 45 seconds
So that‘s a 40x speedup just by using lxml!
Plus, lxml doesn‘t load entire XML/HTML documents into memory. It incrementally parses only what it needs to build the tree structure.
This allows lxml to parse multi-gigabyte size files without consuming insane amounts of RAM like some other parsers.
Rich Feature Set
Lxml doesn‘t just provide raw speed – it also offers a very extensive set of features to handle real-world situations:
- XPath support: Find elements with complex criteria using XPath expressions
- XSLT Processing: Transform XML docs with XSL stylesheets
- Validation: DTD and XML Schema validation for correctness
- Namespaces: Proper handling of namespace-heavy markup
- Serialization: Control output formatting and encoding
- HTML Support: Parse real-world messy HTML with
- Error handling: Gracefully deal with corrupt/malformed markup
So lxml gives you a Swiss Army knife of tools for advanced XML document processing.
Pythonic API and Ease of Use
Despite its C speed, lxml provides a very "Pythonic" API that‘s intuitive and easy to use versus lower level interfaces.
It‘s based on the ElementTree interface, a simplified way of representing XML/HTML documents as Python objects that can be traversed and modified.
The ElementTree API strikes a great balance between power and simplicity. It handles the lower level complexity and gives you an accessible interface for common tasks like:
- Navigating trees of elements
- Extracting/modifying data
- Searching with XPath
- Serializing back to XML or HTML
Overall, lxml combines parsing speed comparable to Java/C, with robust handling of real-world markup, and an elegant Python API.
That unique combination of performance and flexibility is what makes lxml the go-to choice for XML and HTML manipulation in Python.
Before we can start using lxml‘s mighty parsing powers, we first need to install it.
There are a few different ways to install lxml. The easiest is via the pip package manager which comes bundled with Python:
pip install lxml
This downloads the latest stable version and handles installing any dependencies like libxml2 and libxslt.
For environments where you want to isolate dependencies, lxml can also be installed into conda environments:
conda install lxml
Conda environments are great for when you need to manage different versions of Python and related libraries.
Finally, you can compile lxml from source code to get the bleeding edge development version. See the lxml compilation guide for how to build it yourself.
Compiling from source can be useful to customize build options or dependencies, but most times the pip or conda installation are sufficient.
Troubleshooting Lxml Installation
Sometimes lxml installation hits snags due to missing dependencies or build issues. Here are some troubleshooting tips:
No libxml2 or libxslt
Lxml requires the libxml2 and libxslt libraries. On Linux distros make sure their dev packages are installed before trying to install lxml.
LookupError or ImportError
If you get import or lookup errors for lxml, double check that the dependencies exist in the expected locations that were compiled into lxml.
Try creating a fresh virtual environment and installing just lxml in it without any other packages. This isolates the install from any other dependency conflicts.
Compile from source
As a last resort, compiling lxml from the C source yourself can resolve issues stemming from using a pre-compiled binary.
Getting the lxml dependencies squared away can be annoying up front, but once installed it provides a rock solid foundation for all your HTML/XML parsing needs.
Under the hood, lxml relies on several libraries to power its parsing capabilities:
- libxml2: Provides the XML parsing engine. This is where most of lxml‘s raw speed comes from.
- libxslt: Implements XSLT processing. Allows transforming XML with stylesheets.
- ElementTree: Python XML API that lxml wraps and exposes.
- Python: Obviously thelxml Python bindings require Python itself.
Lxml essentially just glues these other libraries together into an easy to use Python package.
So remember lxml itself is fairly lightweight – most of the heavy lifting comes from its C dependencies.
Parsing HTML and XML with Lxml
Alright, let‘s dive into some code and see lxml in action!
The primary use cases for lxml involve:
- Parsing XML or HTML content into a document model
- Traversing and searching the parsed document
- Modifying or extracting data from documents
Let‘s go through examples of each next.
Parsing XML and HTML from Strings
The most basic usage of lxml is to parse a string containing XML or HTML markup.
We can do this by passing the string into
html = """ <body> <p>Hello World</p> </body> """ doc = etree.fromstring(html)
This parses the HTML and returns an
Element tree representing the document structure.
We can verify it worked by calling
tostring() to get the string representation:
<body> <p>Hello World</p> </body>
So with just a few lines of code, we‘ve parsed a string into an lxml document model.
The same process works for XML:
xml = """ <document> <title>Sample Document</title> <content>This is some sample content