Skip to content

What are the different types of proxies? The complete guide

Hey there! Proxies can be confusing with all the different types out there. This guide will explain the major proxy categories in depth so you can learn how to choose the right one for your needs.

Let‘s start with the basics – a proxy acts as an intermediary between your computer and a web server. When you connect through a proxy, it will relay your web requests using its own IP address instead of your own.

Proxies provide a bunch of benefits like anonymity, ability to access blocked content, security, speed, and geo-spoofing (appearing to browse from another country).

But there are several ways to categorize the different types of proxies based on factors like the location of the IP addresses, traffic direction, level of service, and anonymity level.

Understanding these proxy types will help you determine which one is best suited to your specific use case.

Proxies categorized by IP address source

One way proxies differ is where they get the IP addresses used to relay requests. There are generally two main types in this category:

Residential proxies

A residential proxy uses IP addresses provided by real Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and assigned to home devices and networks.

According to research by Netacea, residential proxies account for 29% of the overall proxy market share.

Some key advantages of residential proxies:

  • Appear more realistic to websites: Since the IPs come straight from ISPs to real households, they‘re almost indistinguishable from non-proxy users. This makes them very difficult to detect and block.

  • Useful for IP rotation: Having a large, diverse pool of ISP-assigned IPs allows smoothly rotating through different IPs to avoid blocks when doing things like web scraping.

  • Can mimic geographic locations: Based on where the ISP IP is located, residential proxies let you appear to be browsing from different cities, states, or countries.

There are also some more specialized variants of residential proxies to be aware of:

  • Static residential proxies: These provide you a dedicated, unchanging IP address from a specific location. This can be useful if you need to consistently use the same IP when logging into accounts or browsing from the same geographic appearance.

  • Mobile residential proxies: These use IP addresses assigned to cellular data networks like 4G or 5G towers. This makes them appear even more genuine than static home IP addresses when browsing the web.

According to BrightData’s 2024 proxy report, 54% of residential proxy providers now offer mobile proxies as well. The downside is cost – mobile and static residential proxies are more expensive than regular residential ones.

One potential disadvantage of residential proxies is cost. Since the IP addresses have to be sourced directly from ISPs, residential proxy services tend to be more expensive than some other options. They also can’t handle as much simultaneous traffic as datacenter proxies.

But when realism and rotating IPs are important, residential proxies are usually the best choice despite the higher price. They are ideal for things like web scraping, social media automation, and ad verification.

Datacenter proxies

Datacenter proxies use IP addresses provided by hosting companies, rather than ISPs. The IPs come from large pools located in data centers around the world.

Datacenter proxies are cheaper than residential ones and make up around 71% of the total proxy market according to Netacea’s data.

Some pros of using datacenter proxies:

  • Cost effective for basic proxies – can find plans for under $10/month.

  • Fast connection speeds since they operate on high-bandwidth server hardware.

  • Some diversity in IP addresses depending on the provider‘s datacenter locations.

However, there are some downsides to watch out for with datacenter proxies:

  • Appear less realistic – easier for websites to detect them as proxies compared to residential IPs.

  • Higher risk of IP blocks when doing lots of requests – websites can blacklist the entire provider’s IP pool.

  • Limited IP diversity in some cases – proxies from smaller providers might reuse the same IPs frequently.

Datacenter proxies work well for basic use cases like accessing geo-restricted content. But the lack of IP diversity makes them higher risk for activities like web scraping or social media automation.

Proxies categorized by traffic direction

Proxies can also be classified based on whether they are set up on the client-side or the server-side of the network:

Forward proxies

Forward proxies, sometimes called simple proxies, are configured on the client machine or device. As the client, your requests get routed through the forward proxy server, which then sends the results back to you.

Forward proxies are useful for:

  • Masking your real IP address and location
  • Accessing content blocked in your geographic region
  • Network-wide content filtering and censorship
  • Caching frequently accessed content to speed up performance

They protect the privacy and anonymity of the client by hiding your origin and intent from the websites you interact with.

Reverse proxies

A reverse proxy sits in front of a web server and receives requests intended for that server. When clients connect to the proxy, it will funnel the requests to the appropriate server and return the responses to the client.

Some common uses for reverse proxy servers:

  • Increase security by concealing backend application servers
  • Load balancing between multiple servers to prevent lag
  • Caching static content to boost speed for users
  • Simplify SSL encryption and other security policies

Reverse proxies provide benefits like security, performance, and availability for the server-side infrastructure.

So in summary, forward proxies protect clients while reverse proxies protect servers. But both add a beneficial intermediate hop that can improve speed, security, access control, and more.

Proxies categorized by level of service

Proxies can also be grouped based on the number of users sharing an IP address. Let‘s compare proxies at three service levels:

Public proxies

Public proxies are free, open proxies that anyone can use. They are run by volunteers, universities, or unknown proxy service providers.

Some key attributes of public proxies:

  • Completely free to use – just find lists of public proxies online
  • Thousands of random users sharing the same proxy IP addresses
  • Very slow connection speeds due to massive overuse
  • No guarantee of uptime – public proxies come and go frequently
  • High risk of malware or spying since they are unregulated
  • Get blacklisted rapidly as users trigger blocks across websites

According to BrightData, public proxies make up around 15% of the total proxy market. But most expert users avoid them due to the performance and privacy risks.

Shared proxies

With shared proxies, you pay for access to a proxy service‘s pool of IP addresses. The IPs are shared and allocated dynamically across the provider‘s paid subscribers.

Some benefits over public proxies:

  • More reliable connection speeds and uptime
  • Lower risk of malware or spying since it is a known provider
  • Still affordable compared to private proxies
  • Some providers offer tens of thousands of IPs to ensure diversity

Tradeoffs vs public proxies:

  • Not free to use, but prices start around $5-10 per month
  • IPs are still shared, so speeds vary based on number of concurrent users
  • Activity by one user can still get IPs blocked, impacting others

According to Netacea, shared proxies represent around 59% of the commercial proxy market. With reasonable pricing and more accountability than public proxies, shared providers like Luminati and Oxylabs are popular choices.

Private proxies

A private proxy dedicates a single IP address to one user only. No other users have access to that IP. This guarantees you the full network resources.

Advantages of private proxies:

  • Guaranteed connection speeds and bandwidth – no competition for resources
  • Your usage cannot impact IP reputation for other users
  • Highest level of isolation and anonymity

But this exclusivity comes at a premium cost:

  • Around 5x the price of shared proxies from the same provider
  • Average of $50/month for one dedicated residential IP

According to proxy service GeoSurf, private proxies make up 15% of demand but over 50% of revenue in the commercial proxy market. The extremely high cost makes them only viable for cases where exclusivity and performance are critical.

Proxies categorized by level of anonymity

Proxies can also be grouped according to how much information they reveal about the client‘s real IP address and identity:

Transparent proxies

Transparent proxies do not hide any details about the client‘s IP or the proxy‘s involvement:

  • Pass client‘s actual IP in the X-Forwarded-For header
  • Reveal the proxy‘s IP address in the Via header

Because they do not hide IP details, transparent proxies are typically only used internally by companies and organizations for things like caching. They do not provide anonymity.

Anonymous proxies

Anonymous proxies hide the client‘s real IP address but still reveal themselves as a proxy in headers:

  • Spoof or strip the X-Forwarded-For header with fake or blank values
  • Still include the proxy IP address in Via header

Anonymous proxies are very common and great for basic privacy needs like accessing region-blocked content. But the Via header means sites could still potentially block known proxy IPs.

Elite proxies

Elite or high-anonymity proxies attempt to fully mask both the client‘s real IP and any sign of proxy use:

  • Provide no X-Forwarded-For header at all
  • Spoof or strip the Via header to hide the proxy IP

By removing all indicators in headers, elite proxies offer the highest degree of IP anonymity. This makes them ideal for tasks like web scraping where avoiding blocks is critical.

The downside is cost – elite residential proxies are among the most expensive due to the technical challenges of completely masking header data. Expect to pay 3-4x more than anonymous residential proxies.

Key takeaways

Choosing the right proxy comes down to aligning its capabilities with your specific needs:

  • Residential vs datacenter: Residential more realistic, datacenter faster and cheaper
  • Forward vs reverse: Forward for clients, reverse for servers
  • Public vs shared vs private: Public risky but free, private costly but exclusive
  • Transparent vs anonymous vs elite: Elite hides client IP completely

Understanding these proxy types allows you to confidently select the ideal one for private browsing, web scraping, ad verification, geo-targeting, and more.

The proxy market provides diverse options in terms of location, anonymity, service level, and traffic handling. Take the time to think through your use case to determine if factors like speed, cost, realism, or exclusivity are most important.

With the right proxy matched to your needs, you can enjoy benefits like anonymity, geo-spoofing, and anti-blocking for seamless and secure web access.

Let me know if you have any other questions!

Join the conversation

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *